A jacket is a mid-stomach–length outerwear garment for the upper body, worn by both men and women. A jacket typically has sleeves, and fastens in the front or slightly on the side. There are single, double, triple breasted versions, with notched lapels, Nehru collar revers or over collar details. Jackets are generally lighter, tighter-fitting, and less warm than a proper outerwear, like a coat. The word jacket comes from the French word jaquette. The term comes from the Middle French noun jaquet, which refers to a small or lightweight tunic.
There are countless styles and shapes of jackets through history. Jackets have probably originated during the Middle Ages or early Renaissance as the “jerkin”, which is a more fitted version of the older short tunic worn by working-class men. By the early 19th century, the jacket became a standard working dress code for both in agriculture as well in the cities worn by servants. Slowly it started getting further developed in shape and in details and around 1860, jackets are worn by middle-class men and they are becoming known as the reefer jacket. Another popular jacket of that period is the single-breasted norfolk jacket, which was buttoned high to the neck, and became very fashionable for country sporting activities. At the same time for women jackets are becoming very fashionable too. In April 1857 the female magazine Corriere delle dame announced the arrival of the jacket “as a style that would go on to become an essential item for both men’s and women’s wardrobes”.
But by the end of the 19th century jackets are an essential piece of the mens’ and women’s’ wardrobe. For men three-buttoned styles were deemed fashionable, while The Adam Magazine stated in its July 1935 issue “The jacket, a type of coat that is neither tailcoat nor redingote, will be the general fashion in a single-breasted version with skirts that do not reach the knee.” Adam went onto say how the jacket “barely covers the buttocks and is shaped like a sack.”
For men we meet another jacket style this period, made with silk-fronted lapels. It was often worn to dinner parties and it became known as a dinner jacket (part of the formal suit known as a “tuxedo”).
In the 20th century the jacket, took a wider range of meanings referring to all kinds of outerwear, while the tree piece suit (pants, trousers, vests) became the formal business look of the time and of any special occasion. Furthermore, jackets were loved by fashion movements, subcultures and artists that have worn them in a unique style with a twist. Striped blazers became popular among British Mods in the early 1960s and the late 1970s, where we meet Mods in London wearing boating blazers as their emblem. Photos of bands that loved wearing jackets can be found from The Who, the Animals, The Rolling Stones, The Beatles, The Kinks, Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames, The Yardbirds, The Moody Blues and The Troggs.
By the late 2000s the blazer had been adopted as a popular fashion trend amongst females and males, often having shorter lengths, rolled up sleeves, various lapels, bright colors, textured patterns and innovative embellishments.
Below you can find a list, where most types of jackets are presented in alphabetical order as presented in Wikipedia_Jackets:
Atilla, a fancy, braided Hungarian shell-jacket or short coat, decorated with lace and knots
Ball jacket, often specified as a baseball jacket or football jacket, a casual jacket with knitted cuffs, collar, and waistband and a zippered front
Bed jacket, a jacket made from lightweight material designed to be worn in bed
Blazer, similar to but more casual than a suit jacket; single- or double-breasted of sturdy material, commonly with metal buttons.
Blouson, a military-style waist length jacket.
Bolero, a very short jacket for women, originally worn by matadors
Bomber jacket, a blouson originally designed for US aircrews in leather or nylon.
Brunswick, a two-piece woman’s gown of the mid-eighteenth century.
Caraco, a woman’s jacket of the 18th century.
Dinner jacket, part of the black-tie dress code of evening formal wear. Also known as a Dinner suit and a Tuxedo.
Down jacket, a quilted jacket filled with down feathers
Eisenhower jacket, a waist-length, fitted, military-inspired jacket with a waistband based on the World War II British Army’s Battle Dress jacket introduced by General Dwight Eisenhower
Field jacket, a jacket that is worn by soldiers on the battlefield or doing duties in cold weather. The field jacket came about during World War II with the US Army introducing the M-1941 and the M-1943 field jacket and issued the jacket to their troops. The most well-known and the most popular type of military field jacket that is on the market today is the M-1965 or M-65 field jacket which came into US military service in 1965.
Fleece jacket, a casual jacket made of synthetic wool such as Polar Fleece
Flight jacket, also known as a bomber jacket
Gilet, a sleeveless jacket or vest.
Harrington jacket, a lightweight waist-length jacket
Jean jacket or denim jacket, a jacket falling slightly below the waist, usually of denim, with buttoned band cuffs like a shirt and a waistband that can be adjusted by means of buttons. Also called Levi’s jacket (see Levi’s)
Kilt jacket, one of several styles of traditional Scottish jacket worn with the kilt, including the Argyll jacket, the Prince Charlie jacket, and a type of tweed jacket
Leather jacket, also known as a motorcycle jacket
Mess jacket or eton jacket, similar to a tailcoat but cut off just below the waist. Worn as part of mess dress and formerly as the school uniform of boys under 5’4″ at Eton College until 1976 and at many other English schools, particularly choir schools
Motorcycle jacket, a leather jacket, usually black, worn by motorcycle riders; originally to mid-thigh, now usually to a fitted waist
Peplum jacket, a jacket featuring a short overskirt
Puffer jacket or Puffa jacket, a type of padded jacket popular in the 1990s
Rain jacket, a short rain coat
Reefing jacket or reefer, a type of pea coat
Riding jacket, part of a riding habit
Satin jacket, a type of ball jacket made of satin and popular in the 1950s
Spencer, a high-waisted jacket dating to the Regency period
Sport coat (US) or Sports jacket (UK), a tailored jacket, similar in cut to a suit coat but more utilitarian, originally casual wear for hunting, riding, and other outdoor sports; specific types include a shooting jacket and hacking jacket
Tabard, a loose sleeveless outer garment
Tunic, a thigh length coat or jacket worn with a wide range of military and civilian uniforms
Varsity jacket also known as a letter jacket or letterman jacket
Windbreaker (N. American, Japan) or windcheater (UK)
Wamus, also called a “roundabout,” a traditional American term for a short jacket.